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22.3 Resonance Charging........................................................... 534

22.4 Switching Converters.......................................................... 535

23 Power Electronics for Renewable Energy Sources C. V. Nayar, S. M. Islam, and Hari Sharma........... 539

23.1 Introduction................................................................ 539

23.2 Power Electronics for Photovohaic Power Systems...................................... 540

23.3 Power Electronics for Wind Power Systems........................................... 562

24 HVDC Transmission Vijay K. Sood.................................................... 575

24.1 Introduction................................................................ 575

24.2 Main Components of HVDC Converter Station........................................ 580

24.3 Analysis of Converter Bridges.................................................... 583

24.4 Controls and Protection........................................................ 583

24.5 MTDC Operation............................................................ 589

24.6 Applications................................................................ 591

24.7 Modern Trends.............................................................. 592

24.8 DC System Simulation Techniques................................................. 595

24.9 Conclusion................................................................. 596

25 Multilevel Converters and VAR Compensation Azeddine Draou, Mustapha Benghanem, and Ali Tahri...... 599

25.1 Introduction................................................................ 599

25.2 Reactive Power Phenomena and Their Compensation.................................... 600

25.3 Modehng and Analysis of an Advanced Static VAR Compensator............................ 603

25.4 Static VAR Compensator for the Improvement of Stability of a Turbo Ahernator................. 612

25.5 Multilevel Inverters............................................................ 615

25.6 The Harmonics Elimination Method for a Three-Level Inverter............................. 619

25.7 Three-Level ASVC Structure Connected to the Network................................... 622

26 Drive Types and Specifications Yahya Shakweh........................................... 629

26.1 Overview.................................................................. 629

26.2 Drive Requirements and Specifications.............................................. 633

26.3 Drive Classifications and Characteristics............................................. 636

26.4 Load Profiles and Characteristics.................................................. 641

26.5 Variable-Speed Drive Topologies................................................... 644

26.6 PWM VSI Drive............................................................. 650

26.7 Applications................................................................ 657

26.8 Summary.................................................................. 660

27 Motor Drives M. F. Rahman, D. Patterson, A. Cheok, and R. Betts............................... 663

27.1 Introduction................................................................ 664

27.2 DC Motor Drives............................................................. 665

27.3 Induction Motor Drives........................................................ 670

27.4 Synchronous Motor Drives...................................................... 681

27.5 Permanent Magnet ac Synchronous Motor Drives....................................... 689

27.6 Permanent-Magnet Brushless dc (BLDC) Motor Drives................................... 694

27.7 Servo Drives................................................................ 704

27.8 Stepper Motor Drives.......................................................... 710

27.9 Switched-Reluctance Motor Drives................................................. 717

27.10 Synchronous Reluctance Motor Drives.............................................. 727

28 Sensorless Vector and Direct-Torque-Controlled Drives Peter Vas and Pekka Tiitinen.................

28.1 General................................................................... 735

28.2 Basic Types of Torque-Controlled Drive Schemes: Vector Drives, Direct-Torque-Controlled Drives...... 736

28.3 Motion Control DSPS by Texas Instruments.......................................... 766

29 Artificial-Intelligence-Based Drives Peter Vas............................................. 769

29.1 General Aspects of the Application of AI-Based Techniques................................ 769

29.2 AI-Based Techniques........................................................... 770



29.3 AI Applications in Electrical Machines and Drives....................................... 773

29.4 Industrial Applications of AI in Drives by Hitachi, Yaskawa, Texas Instruments and SGS Thomson...... 774

29.5 Apphcation of Neural-Network-Based Speed Estimators................................... 774

30 Fuzzy Logic in Electric Drives Ahmed Rubaai............................................. 779

30.1 Introduction................................................................. 779

30.2 The Fuzzy Logic Concept........................................................ 779

30.3 Apphcations of Fuzzy Logic to Electric Drives.......................................... 784

30.4 Hardware System Description..................................................... 788

30.5 Conclusion.................................................................. 789

31 Automotive Applications of Power Electronics David J. Perreault, Khun am K. Afridi, and Iftikhar A. Khan ... 791

31.1 Introduction................................................................. 791

31.2 The Present Automotive Electrical Power System........................................ 792

31.3 System Environment........................................................... 792

31.4 Functions Enabled by Power Electronics.............................................. 797

31.5 Multiplexed Load Control........................................................ 801

31.6 Electromechanical Power Conversion................................................ 803

31.7 Dual/High-Voltage Automotive Electrical System........................................ 808

31.8 Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicles................................................ 812

31.9 Summary................................................................... 813

32 Power Quality S. Mark Halpin and Angela Card............................................ 817

32.1 Introduction................................................................. 817

32.2 Power Quality................................................................ 818

32.3 Reactive Power and Harmonic Compensation.......................................... 823

32.4 IEEE Standards............................................................... 827

32.5 Conclusions................................................................. 828

33 Active Filters Luis Moran and Juan Dixon................................................ 829

33.1 Introduction................................................................. 829

33.2 Types of Active Power Fihers...................................................... 829

33.3 Shunt Active Power Fihers....................................................... 830

33.4 Series Active Power Fihers....................................................... 841

34 Computer Simulation of Power Electronics and Motor Drives Michael Giesselmann.................. 853

34.1 Introduction................................................................. 853

34.2 Use of Simulation Tools for Design and Analysis........................................ 853

34.3 Simulation of Power Electronics Circuits with PSpice®.................................... 854

34.4 Simulations of Power Electronic Circuits and Electric Machines.............................. 857

34.5 Simulations of ac Induction Machines using Field Oriented (Vector) Control..................... 860

34.6 Simulation of Sensorless Vector Control Using PSpice® Release 9............................. 863

34.7 Simulations Using Simplorer®.................................................... 868

34.8 Conclusions................................................................. 870

35 Packaging and Smart Power Systems Douglas С Hopkins..................................... 871

35.1 Introduction................................................................. 871

35.2 Background................................................................. 871

35.3 Functional Integration.......................................................... 872

35.4 Assessing Partitioning Technologies................................................. 874

35.5 FuU-Cost Model [5]............................................................ 877

35.6 Partitioning Approach.......................................................... 878

35.7 Example 2.2 kW Motor Drive Design................................................ 879

35.8 Acknowledgment.............................................................. 881

Index............................................................................. 883



Preface

Introduction

The purpose of Power Electronics Handbook is to provide a reference that is both concise and useful for engineering students and practicing professionals. It is designed to cover a wide range of topics that make up the field of power electronics in a weU-organized and highly informative manner. The Handbook is a careful blend of both traditional topics and new advancements. Special emphasis is placed on practical applications, thus, this Handbook is not a theoretical one, but an enlightening presentation of the usefulness of the rapidly growing field of power electronics. The presentation is tutorial in nature in order to enhance the value of the book to the reader and foster a clear understanding of the material.

The contributors to this Handbook span the globe, with fifty-four authors from twelve different countries, some of whom are the leading authorities in their areas of expertise. AU were chosen because of their intimate knowledge of their subjects, and their contributions make this a comprehensive state-of-the-art guide to the expanding field of power electronics and its apphcations covering:

the characteristics of modern power semiconductor devices, which are used as switches to perform the power conversions from ac-dc, dc-dc, dc-ac, and ac-ac;

both the fundamental principles and in-depth study of the operation, analysis, and design of various power converters; and

examples of recent applications of power electronics.

Power Electronics Backgrounds

The first electronics revolution began in 1948 with the invention of the sUicon transistor at BeU Telephone Laboratories by Bardeen, Bratain, and Schockley. Most of todays advanced electronic technologies are traceable to that invention, and

modern microelectronics has evolved over the years from these sUicon semiconductors. The second electronics revolution began with the development of a commercial thyristor by the General Electric Company in 1958. That was the beginning of a new era of power electronics. Since then, many different types of power semiconductor devices and conversion techniques have been introduced.

The demand for energy, particularly in electrical forms, is ever-increasing in order to improve the standard of living. Power electronics helps with the efficient use of electricity, thereby reducing power consumption. Semiconductor devices are used as switches for power conversion or processing, as are sohd state electronics for efficient control of the amount of power and energy flow. Higher efficiency and lower losses are sought for devices for a range of applications, from microwave ovens to high-voltage dc transmission. New devices and power electronic systems are now evolving for even more effective control of power and energy.

Power electronics has already found an important place in modern technology and has revolutionized control of power and energy. As the voltage and current ratings and switching characteristics of power semiconductor devices keep improving, the range of applications continues to expand in areas such as lamp controls, power supplies to motion control, factory automation, transportation, energy storage, multi-megawatt industrial drives, and electric power transmission and distribution. The greater efficiency and tighter control features of power electronics are becoming attractive for applications in motion control by replacing the earher electro-mechanical and electronic systems. Applications in power transmission include high-voltage dc (VHDC) converter stations, flexible ac transmission system (FACTS), and static-var compensators. In power distribution these include dc-to-ac conversion, dynamic filters, frequency conversion, and Custom Power System.

Almost aU new electrical or electromechanical equipment, from household air conditioners and computer power supplies to industrial motor controls, contain power electronic circuits



Preface

and/or systems. In order to keep up, working engineers LoCBtillg YoUt Topic

involved in control and conversion of power and energy -

into applications ranging from several hundred voltages at a fraction of an ampere for display devices to about 10,000 V at high-voltage dc transmission, should have a working knowledge of power electronics.

A table of contents is presented at the front of the book, and each chapter begins with its own table of contents. The reader should look over these tables of contents to become famihar with the structure, organization, and content of the book.

Organization

Audience

The Handbook starts with an introductory chapter and moves on to cover topics on power semiconductor devices, power converters, applications and peripheral issues. The book is organized into six areas, the first of which includes chapters on operation and characterizations of power semiconductor devices: power diode, thyristor, gate turn-off thyristor (GTO), power bipolar transistor (BJT), power MOSFET, insulated gate bipolar transistor, MOS controUed thyristor (MCT), and static induction devices.

The next topic area includes chapters covering various types of power converters, the principles of operation and the methods for the analysis and design of power converters. This also includes gate drive circuits and control methods for power converters. The next three chapters cover applications in power supplies, electronics baUasts, renewable energy sources, HVDC transmission, VAR compensation, and capacitor charging.

The foUowing six chapters focus on the operation, theory and control methods of motor drives, and automotive systems. We then move on to two chapters on power quality issues and active filters, and two chapters on computer simulation, packaging and smart power systems.

The Handbook is designed to provide both students and practicing engineers with answers to questions involving the wide spectrum of power electronics. The book can be used as a textbook for graduate students in electrical or systems engineering, or as a reference book for senior undergraduate students and for engineers who are interested and involved in operation, project management, design, and analysis of power electronics equipment and motor drives.

Acknowledgments

This Handbook was made possible through the expertise and dedication of outstanding authors from throughout the world. I gratefully acknowledge the personnel at Academic Press who produced the book, including Jane Phelan. In addition, special thanks are due to Joel D. Claypool, the executive editor for this book.

Finally, I express my deep appreciation to my wife, Fatema Rashid, who graciously puts up with my publication activities.

Muhammad H. Rashid, Editor-in-Chief



List of Contributors

Chapter 1

Phihp Krein

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

341 William L. Everitt Laboratory

1406 West Green Street

Urbana, Illinois 61801

Chapter 2

Ah L Maswood School ofEEE

Nanyang Technological University Nanyang Avenue Singapore 639798

Chapter 3

Jerry Hudgins, Enrico Santi, Antonio Caiafa, Katherine Lengel

Department of Electrical Engineering

University of South Carolina

Columbia, South Carolina 29208

Patrick R. Palmer Department of Engineering Cambridge University Trumpington Street Cambridge CB2 IPZ UK

Chapter 4

Muhammad H. Rashid

Electrical and Computer Engineering

University of West Florida

11000 University Parkway

Pensacola, Florida 32514-5754

Chapter 5

Marcelo Godoy Simoes Engineering Division Colorado School of Mines Golden, Colorado 80401-1887 USA

Chapter 6

Issa Batarseh

College of Engineering and Computer Science University of Central Florida Orlando, Florida 32816 USA

Chapter 7

S. Abedinpour

Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science University of Illinois at Chicago Chicago, Illinois 60607 USA

K. Shenai

851 South Morgan Street (М/С 154) Chicago, Illinois 60607-7053 USA

Chapter 8

S. Yuvarajan

Department of Electrical Engineering North Dakota State University P.O. Box 5285

Fargo, North Dakota 58105-5285 USA

Chapter 9

B. M. Wilamowski College of Engineering University of Idaho Boise, ID 83712 USA



Chapter 10

Yim Shu Lee, Martin H. L. Chow

Department of Electronic and Information Engineering

The Hong Kong Polytechnic University

Hung Нот

Hong Kong

Chapter 11

Jose Rodriguez, Alejandro Weinstein

Department of Electronics

Universidad Tecnica

Federico, Santa Maria

Valparaiso

Chile

Chapter 12

Juan W. Dixon

Department of Electrical Engineering

Catholic University of Chile

Vicuna Mackenna 4860

Santiago

Chile

Chapter 13

Dariusz Czarkowski

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

Polytechnic University

Six Metrotech Center

Brooklyn, New York 11201

Chapter 14

Jose R. Espinoza

Depto. Ing Electrica, Of 220

Universidad de Concepcion

Casilla 160-C, Correo 3

Concepcion

Chile

Chapter 15

S. Y (Ron) Hui, Henry S. H. Chung Department of Electronic Engineering City University of Hong Kong Tat Chee Avenue Kowloon Hong Kong

Chapter 17

Fang Lin Luo, Hong Ye

School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Block S2

Nanyang Technological University Nanyang Avenue Singapore 639798

Muhammad H. Rashid

Electrical and Computer Engineering

University of West Florida

11000 University Parkway

Pensacola, Florida 32514-5754

Chapter 18

M. Syed J. Asghar

Department of Electrical Engineering

Aligarh Muslim University

Aligarh

India

Chapter 19

J. Fernando Silva Instituto Superior Tecnico CAUTL, DEEC

Mdquinas Electricas e Electronica de Potencia (24)

Technical University of Lisbon

Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001

Lisboa

Portugal

Chapter 20

Y M. Lai

Department of Electronic and Information Engineering The Hong Kong Polytechnic University Hung Нот Hong Kong

Chapter 21

J. Marcos Alonso

University of Oveido

DIEECS - Tecnologia Electronica

Campus de Viesques s/n

Edificio de Electronica

33204 Gijon

Spain

Chapter 16

Ajit K. Chattopadhyay Electrical Engineering Department Bengal Engineering College Howrah-711 103 India

Chapter 22

R. Mark Nelms

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering 200 Broun Hall Auburn University Auburn, Alabama 36849



Chapter 23

C. V. Nayar, S. M. Islam

Centre for Renewable Energy and Sustainable Technologies Curtin University of Technology Perth, Western Australia Australia

Hari Sharma

ACRE (Australian CRC for Renewable Energy Ltd)/MUERI Murdoch University Perth, Western Australia Australia

Chapter 24

Vijay K. Sood

Expertise-Equipemen ts Electriques Hydro-Quebec (IREQ) 1800 Lionel Boulet Varennes, Quebec Canada J3X ISl

Chapter 25

Azeddine Draou, A. Tahri, M. Benghanem University of Sciences and Technology of Oran B.P. 29013 Oran-USTO a Oran, Algeria

R. Betts

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Newcastle Callaghan, NSW 2308 Australia

Chapter 28

Peter Vas

Head of Intelligent Motion Control and Condition

Monitoring Group University of Aberdeen Aberdeen AB24 3UE UK

Pekka Tiitinen ABB Industry Oy Helsinki Finland

Chapter 29

Peter Vas

Head of Intelligent Motion Control and Condition

Monitoring Group University of Aberdeen Aberdeen AB24 3UE UK

Chapter 26

Yahya Shakweh

Technical Director

FKI Industrial Drives & Controls

Meadow Lane

Loughborough, Leicestershire, LEll INB UK

Chapter 27

M. R Rahman

School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications The University of New South Wales Sydney NSW 2052 Australia

Chapter 30

Ahmed Rubaai

Department of Electrical Engineering Howard University Washington, DC 20059 USA

Chapter 31

David J. Perreault

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Laboratory for Electromagnetic and Electronic Systems

77 Massachusetts Avenue

Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139

D. Patterson

Northern Territory Centre for Energy Research

Faculty of Technology

Northern Territory University

Darwin, NT 0909

Australia

A. Cheok

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering National University of Singapore 10 Kent Ridge Crescent Singapore 119260

Khurram Afridi Techlogix

800 West Cummings Park Woburn, Massachusetts 01801 USA

Iftikhar A. Khan Delphi, Automotive Systems 2705 South Goyer Road MS D35,

Kokomo, Indiana 46904 USA



Chapter 32

S. Mark Halpin, Angela Card

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

Mississippi State University

Mississippi State, Mississippi 39762

Chapter 34

Michael Giesselmann

Department of Electrical Engineering

Texas Tech University

Lubbock, Texas 79409

Chapter 33

Luis Moran, Juan Dixon Department of Electrical Engineering Universidad de Concepcion Concepcion Chile

Chapter 35

Douglas C. Hopkins

Energy Systems Institute

State University of New York at Buffalo

Room 312, Bonner Hall

Buffalo, New York 14260-1900




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